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    Cyprus time

    cyprus time

    Photography and Cyprus: Time, Place and Identity (International Library of Modern and Contemporary Art, Band 13) | Liz Wells | ISBN: Conversion between India Time and Nicosia, Cyprus Time, Current Local Times in India Time and Nicosia, Cyprus Time. Mai ITALIAMO Kαλτσόνε με μοτσαρέλα-σάλτσα τομάτας | Μozzarella-Τomato Sauce Calzone. 2.€ g (1 kg = €). from TIME Private Institute, Aradippu.

    Operating days are from Monday to Friday, starting between Private Sector Hours Each company keeps its own hours, but generally, office hours are Shop Opening Hours Shop opening hours vary depending on their type and location and whether they are located in urban, tourist or rural areas.

    Generally, shops will open between On Sunday, opening times are later, typically around Some shops still observe a half-day closing on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, and close on Sunday, although in most of the tourist areas of Cyprus, both shops and supermarkets stay open till late at night, and are also open on Sundays.

    Special shopping hours apply for Christmas and Easter with shops permitted to stay open later during the run-up to the events, but must be closed by Eating Hours Breakfast is usually served between All public services, private enterprises, banks and shops are closed on Public Holidays, although many shops and certain services remain open in resorts and coastal areas.

    Banks are closed on Easter Tuesday but not on Christmas Eve. On 1 May Cyprus joined the European Union, together with nine other countries.

    In July , the island served as a haven for people fleeing Lebanon, due to the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah also called " The July War ".

    Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. In April , Northern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years.

    Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia both in terms of area and population. The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range , and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria.

    The Mesaoria plain is drained by the Pedieos River , the longest on the island. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area.

    The island lies within the Anatolian Plate. Geopolitically , the island is subdivided into four main segments. The Republic of Cyprus occupies the southern two-thirds of the island The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus occupies the northern third Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia , covering the remaining 2.

    Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry.

    Cyprus has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean part of the European Union. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. Inland temperatures are more extreme, with colder winters and hotter summers compared with the coast of the island.

    Sunshine hours on the coast are around 3, per year, from an average of 5—6 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12—13 hours in July.

    Cyprus suffers from a chronic shortage of water. The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water, but in the past 30 years average yearly precipitation has decreased.

    However, since then demand has increased annually — a result of local population growth, foreigners moving to Cyprus and the number of visiting tourists — while supply has fallen as a result of more frequent droughts.

    The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 per cent of domestic water since Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity.

    Turkey has built a water pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea from Anamur on its southern coast to the northern coast of Cyprus, to supply Northern Cyprus with potable and irrigation water see Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project.

    Cyprus is a presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.

    The Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots.

    The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice-president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions.

    Since , following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. In Cyprus was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island.

    The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but were recognised only by Turkey.

    In the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the entire island of Cyprus.

    The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five-year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian , Latin and Maronite minorities.

    Due to his involvement in the —13 Cypriot financial crisis , Christofias did not run for re-election in The Presidential election in resulted in Democratic Rally candidate Nicos Anastasiades winning As a result, Anastasiades was sworn in on and has been President since 28 February The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: Cyprus has four exclaves , all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia.

    The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station , which is divided by a British road into two parts.

    The northern part is the EAC refugee settlement. The southern part, even though located by the sea, is also an exclave because it has no territorial waters of its own, those being U.

    The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor.

    In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto , though not de jure , exclave. The Republic of Cyprus is a member of the following international groups: The Cyprus Police Greek: Hadjisavvas has asserted that these actions are motivated by a Turkish policy of erasing the Greek presence in Northern Cyprus within a framework of ethnic cleansing, as well as by greed and profit-seeking on the part of the individuals involved.

    It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. Historically all men were required to spend 24 months serving in the National Guard after their 17th birthday, but in this period of compulsory service was reduced to 14 months.

    Annually, approximately 10, persons are trained in recruit centres. Depending on their awarded specialty the conscript recruits are then transferred to specialty training camps or to operational units.

    In the early 21st century the Cypriot economy has diversified and become prosperous. Tourism, financial services and shipping are significant parts of the economy.

    Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union.

    The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January Turkey , which does not recognise the border agreements of Cyprus with its neighbours, [] threatened to mobilise its naval forces if Cyprus proceeded with plans to begin drilling at Block Because of the heavy influx of tourists and foreign investors, the property rental market in Cyprus has grown in recent years.

    Available modes of transport are by road, sea and air. A series of motorways runs along the coast from Paphos east to Ayia Napa, with two motorways running inland to Nicosia, one from Limassol and one from Larnaca.

    Per capita private car ownership is the 29th-highest in the world. In the new bus network was implemented. Cyprus has several heliports and two international airports: A third airport, Ercan International Airport , operates in the Turkish Cypriot administered area with direct flights only to Turkey Turkish Cypriot ports are closed to international traffic apart from Turkey.

    Nicosia International Airport has been closed since The main harbours of the island are Limassol and Larnaca , which service cargo, passenger and cruise ships.

    Cyta , the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three different companies are present: According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of ,; of whom , Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between and , an island-wide census was regarded as impossible.

    Nevertheless, the Cypriot government conducted one in , without the Turkish Cypriot populace. In addition to this, the Republic of Cyprus is home to , foreign permanent residents [] and an estimated 10,—30, undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island.

    According to the census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were , de jure people living in Northern Cyprus. Of the , citizens born in Cyprus, , say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16, say both parents born in Turkey; 10, have one parent born in Turkey and one parent born in Cyprus.

    In , the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Cyprus was 1. The villages of Rizokarpaso only one in the north , Potamia Nicosia district and Pyla Larnaca District are the only settlements remaining with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population.

    Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus: Hala Sultan Tekke , situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake , is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam [] [] and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims [] and Christians.

    According to the census carried out in the Government-controlled area, [] There is also a Jewish community on Cyprus.

    Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish. Russian, after English and Greek, is the third language used on many signs of shops and restaurants, particularly in Limassol and Paphos.

    Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education.

    State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. Cypriot universities like universities in Greece ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes.

    While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take.

    The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots share a lot in common in their culture but also have differences.

    Several traditional food such as souvla and halloumi and beverages are similar, as well as expressions and ways of life.

    Hospitality and buying or offering food and drinks for guests or others are common among both. In both communities, music, dance and art are integral parts of social life and many artistic, verbal and nonverbal expressions, traditional dances such as tsifteteli , similarities in dance costumes and importance placed on social activities are shared between the communities.

    The event which is very popular in Cyprus was introduced in the 20th century. The art history of Cyprus can be said to stretch back up to 10, years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa.

    Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination — In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides — who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice.

    In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England [] while others train at art schools in Greece and local art institutions such as the Cyprus College of Art , University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology.

    One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art "institutions" and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre.

    Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene. Cyprus was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia.

    The traditional folk music of Cyprus has several common elements with Greek , Turkish , and Arabic Music including Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot dances such as the sousta , syrtos , zeibekikos , tatsia , and karsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired tsifteteli and arapies.

    There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the violin "fkiolin" , lute "laouto" , accordion , Cyprus flute pithkiavlin , oud "outi" and percussions including the " toumperleki ".

    Among musicians is also the acclaimed pianist Cyprien Katsaris and composer and artistic director of the European Capital of Culture initiative Marios Joannou Elia.

    Metal also has a small following in Cyprus represented by bands such as Armageddon rev. Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria , an epic poem , probably composed in the late 7th century BC and attributed to Stasinus.

    The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry. Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages.

    Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Voustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages until the end of Frankish rule 4th century— Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch , Bembo , Ariosto and G.

    There is an increasingly strong presence of both temporary and permanent emigre Cypriot writers in world literature, as well as writings by second and third -generation Cypriot writers born or raised abroad, often writing in English.

    Examples of Cyprus in foreign literature include the works of Shakespeare, with most of the play Othello by William Shakespeare set on the island of Cyprus.

    British writer Lawrence Durrell lived in Cyprus from until , during his time working for the British colonial government on the island, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons about his time in Cyprus which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in The law provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

    An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press.

    The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.

    Local television companies in Cyprus include the state owned Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation which runs two television channels. The majority of local arts and cultural programming is produced by the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation and BRT, with local arts documentaries, review programmes and filmed drama series.

    The most worldwide known Cypriot director, to have worked abroad, is Michael Cacoyannis. In , Cypriot film production received a boost with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee.

    To date, four feature films on which a Cypriot was an executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. It was also the opening film in the Panorama of European Cinema in Athens.

    In , the film was nominated for the best film from the Hellenic Film Academy. Only a small number of foreign films have been made in Cyprus. During the medieval period, under the French Lusignan monarchs of Cyprus an elaborate form of courtly cuisine developed, fusing French, Byzantine and Middle Eastern forms.

    The Lusignan kings were known for importing Syrian cooks to Cyprus, and it has been suggested that one of the key routes for the importation of Middle Eastern recipes into France and other Western European countries, such as blancmange, was via the Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus.

    One that became particularly popular across Europe in the medieval and early modern periods was a stew made with chicken or fish called malmonia, which in English became mawmeny.

    Another example of a Cypriot food ingredient entering the Western European canon is the cauliflower, still popular and used in a variety of ways on the island today, which was associated with Cyprus from the early middle ages.

    There was also a long and extensive trade in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, until well into the sixteenth century. Although much of the Lusignan food culture was lost after the fall of Cyprus to the Ottomans in , a number of dishes that would have been familiar to the Lusignans survive today, including various forms of tahini and houmous, zalatina, skordalia and pickled wild song birds called ambelopoulia.

    Ambelopoulia, which is today highly controversial, and illegal, was exported in vast quantities from Cyprus during the Lusignan and Venetian periods, particularly to Italy and France.

    In the English traveller to Cyprus, John Locke, claimed to have seen the pickled wild birds packed into large jars, or which jars were exported from Cyprus annually.

    Also familiar to the Lusignans would have been Halloumi cheese, which some food writers today claim originated in Cyprus during the Byzantine period [] [] [] although the name of the cheese itself is thought by academics to be of Arabic origin.

    Seafood and fish dishes include squid, octopus, red mullet , and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and taro.

    Other traditional delicacies are meat marinated in dried coriander seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza smoked pork loin , charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki pork and chicken cooked over charcoal , and sheftalia minced meat wrapped in mesentery.

    Pourgouri bulgur , cracked wheat is the traditional source of carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the delicacy koubes.

    Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra , green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils.

    The most common fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines , nectarines, medlar , blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, and hazelnut.

    Cyprus is also well known for its desserts, including lokum also known as Turkish Delight and Soutzoukos. The Cyprus national rugby union team known as The Moufflons currently holds the record for most consecutive international wins, which is especially notable as the Cyprus Rugby Federation was only formed in Tennis player Marcos Baghdatis was ranked 8th in the world, was a finalist at the Australian Open, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final, all in High jumper Kyriakos Ioannou achieved a jump of 2.

    He has been ranked third in the world. They were the only athletes who managed to qualify and thus represented Cyprus at the Winter Olympics.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Cypress. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cyprus disambiguation.

    Island country in Mediterranean. Location of Cyprus pictured lower right , showing the Republic of Cyprus in darker green and the self-declared republic of Northern Cyprus in brighter green, with the rest of the European Union shown in faded green.

    Cypriot Greek Cypriot Turkish. History of Cyprus and Timeline of Cypriot history. Prehistoric Cyprus and Ancient history of Cyprus. Cyprus in the Middle Ages and Kingdom of Cyprus.

    British Cyprus and Modern history of Cyprus. Politics of Cyprus and House of Representatives Cyprus. Districts of Cyprus and List of cities, towns and villages in Cyprus.

    Foreign relations of Cyprus. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.

    June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cyprus Police and Human rights in Cyprus. Transport in Cyprus and Roads and motorways in Cyprus.

    The port of Limassol , the busiest in Cyprus. However the post has been vacant since the Turkish invasion in Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 29 January The Revision, DB World Economic Outlook Database, October Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 20 September Human Development Index Trends, ".

    United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 31 July The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Historical Dictionary of Cyprus.

    Beyond a Divided Cyprus: A State and Society in Transformation. Legal aspects of the Cyprus problem: Annan Plan and EU accession.

    Retrieved 25 October Vajpeyi; Amir Bar-Or The International Law of Occupation. Waging War, Making Peace: Retrieved 27 March The Statehood of Palestine.

    The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.

    In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus. The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence UDI as a.

    Small States in Europe: Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus , but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave.

    An Island in Europe: The EU and the Transformation of Cyprus. The Management of Tourism. Tourism Development and the Environment: Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 19 January Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p.

    George Routledge and Sons, , pp. Harvard University Press , p. The Earliest Prehistory of Cyprus: American Schools of Oriental Research. Archived from the original PDF on 6 June Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 23 November Faunal extinction in an island society: The Trojan War , pages — Greenwood Publishing Group, Greek Pottery in the Bronze Age.

    Retrieved 1 November Greenwood Publishing Group Orage Press, p. University of California Press. The Domed Basilicas of Cyprus.

    A History of the Middle Ages. University of Georgia Press, pp. Taylor and Francis, p. GPO for the Library of Congress, ".

    Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 22 September Historical dictionary of Cyprus [Online-Ausg. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. Retrieved 15 October Toward an Understanding of Europe: What Everyone Needs to Know.

    They hoped that the transfer of administration would pave the way for the island to be united with Greece—an aspiration known as "enosis.

    Instead, Cyprus was part of a wider political movement [ Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization.

    The European Union and the Cyprus Conflict: Modern Conflict, Postmodern Union. Territorial Disputes and International Conflict. University of Michigan Press.

    Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. The Making of Informal States: Statebuilding in Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria.

    Greek Cypriots engaged in a military campaign for enosis, union with Greece. Turkish Cypriots, in response, expressed their desire for taksim, partition of the island.

    From the Abode of Islam to the Turkish Vatan: The Making of a National Homeland in Turkey. In line with the nationalist rhetoric that "Cyprus is Turkish", Menderes predicated his declaration upon the geographic proximity between Cyprus and Anatolia, thereby defining "Cyprus as an extension of Anatolia".

    Casa editrice il Ponte. The educational and political mobilisation between —, aiming at raising Turkish national consciousness, resulted in the involving Turkey as motherland in the Cyprus Question.

    From then on, Turkey, would work hand in hand with the Turkish Cypriot leadership and the British government to oppose the Greek Cypriot demand for Enosis and realise the partition of Cyprus, which meanwhile became the national policy.

    Tatum 1 January Lessons from the Cold War. University Press of America. Retrieved 21 August

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    The Greek Cypriot population, meanwhile, had become hopeful that the British administration would lead to enosis. The idea of enosis was historically part of the Megali Idea , a greater political ambition of a Greek state encompassing the territories with Greek inhabitants in the former Ottoman Empire, including Cyprus and Asia Minor with a capital in Constantinople , and was actively pursued by the Cypriot Orthodox Church , which had its members educated in Greece.

    Initially, the Turkish Cypriots favoured the continuation of the British rule. Nationalistic slogans centred on the idea that "Cyprus is Turkish" and the ruling party declared Cyprus to be a part of the Turkish homeland that was vital to its security.

    The slogan "Partition or Death" was frequently used in Turkish Cypriot and Turkish protests starting in the late s and continuing throughout the s.

    Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. T despite its illegal actions so as not to harm British relations with the Turkish government.

    Cyprus had a total population of ,; of whom , However, the division of power as foreseen by the constitution soon resulted in legal impasses and discontent on both sides, and nationalist militants started training again, with the military support of Greece and Turkey respectively.

    The Greek Cypriot leadership believed that the rights given to Turkish Cypriots under the constitution were too extensive and designed the Akritas plan , which was aimed at reforming the constitution in favour of Greek Cypriots, persuading the international community about the correctness of the changes and violently subjugating Turkish Cypriots in a few days should they not accept the plan.

    Intercommunal violence erupted on 21 December , when two Turkish Cypriots were killed at an incident involving the Greek Cypriot police.

    The violence resulted in the death of Turkish and Greek Cypriots, [93] destruction of Turkish Cypriot or mixed villages and displacement of 25,—30, Turkish Cypriots.

    The crisis resulted in the end of the Turkish Cypriot involvement in the administration and their claiming that it had lost its legitimacy; [17] the nature of this event is still controversial.

    In some areas, Greek Cypriots prevented Turkish Cypriots from travelling and entering government buildings, while some Turkish Cypriots willingly withdrew due to the calls of the Turkish Cypriot administration.

    In , Turkey threatened to invade Cyprus [95] in response to the continuing Cypriot intercommunal violence , but this was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the US President Lyndon B.

    Johnson on 5 June, warning that the US would not stand beside Turkey in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory.

    Greece dispatched 10, troops to Cyprus to counter a possible Turkish invasion. This justification has been rejected by the United Nations and the international community.

    The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions in Cyprus, and hundreds of paratroopers were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established; while off the Kyrenia coast, Turkish troop ships landed 6, men as well as tanks, trucks and armoured vehicles.

    Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed, [] Turkey had landed 30, troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish Cypriot quarter of Nicosia itself.

    In Nicosia, Glafkos Clerides assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored, removing the pretext for the Turkish invasion. Among a variety of sanctions against Turkey, in mid the US Congress imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using American-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in After the restoration of constitutional order and the return of Archbishop Makarios III to Cyprus in December , Turkish troops remained, occupying the northeastern portion of the island.

    The events of the summer of dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around , settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north—many of whom were forced from Turkey by the Turkish government—in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions.

    The Turkish invasion, the ensuing occupation and the declaration of independence by the TRNC have been condemned by United Nations resolutions, which are reaffirmed by the Security Council every year.

    The plan was put to a referendum in both Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. On 1 May Cyprus joined the European Union, together with nine other countries.

    In July , the island served as a haven for people fleeing Lebanon, due to the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah also called " The July War ".

    Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. In April , Northern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years.

    Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia both in terms of area and population. The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range , and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria.

    The Mesaoria plain is drained by the Pedieos River , the longest on the island. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area.

    The island lies within the Anatolian Plate. Geopolitically , the island is subdivided into four main segments.

    The Republic of Cyprus occupies the southern two-thirds of the island The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus occupies the northern third Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia , covering the remaining 2.

    Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry.

    Cyprus has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean part of the European Union. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare.

    Inland temperatures are more extreme, with colder winters and hotter summers compared with the coast of the island. Sunshine hours on the coast are around 3, per year, from an average of 5—6 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12—13 hours in July.

    Cyprus suffers from a chronic shortage of water. The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water, but in the past 30 years average yearly precipitation has decreased.

    However, since then demand has increased annually — a result of local population growth, foreigners moving to Cyprus and the number of visiting tourists — while supply has fallen as a result of more frequent droughts.

    The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 per cent of domestic water since Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity.

    Turkey has built a water pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea from Anamur on its southern coast to the northern coast of Cyprus, to supply Northern Cyprus with potable and irrigation water see Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project.

    Cyprus is a presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.

    The Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots.

    The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice-president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions.

    Since , following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. In Cyprus was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island.

    The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but were recognised only by Turkey.

    In the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the entire island of Cyprus.

    The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five-year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian , Latin and Maronite minorities.

    Due to his involvement in the —13 Cypriot financial crisis , Christofias did not run for re-election in The Presidential election in resulted in Democratic Rally candidate Nicos Anastasiades winning As a result, Anastasiades was sworn in on and has been President since 28 February The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: Cyprus has four exclaves , all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia.

    The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station , which is divided by a British road into two parts.

    The northern part is the EAC refugee settlement. The southern part, even though located by the sea, is also an exclave because it has no territorial waters of its own, those being U.

    The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor.

    In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto , though not de jure , exclave.

    The Republic of Cyprus is a member of the following international groups: The Cyprus Police Greek: Hadjisavvas has asserted that these actions are motivated by a Turkish policy of erasing the Greek presence in Northern Cyprus within a framework of ethnic cleansing, as well as by greed and profit-seeking on the part of the individuals involved.

    It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. Historically all men were required to spend 24 months serving in the National Guard after their 17th birthday, but in this period of compulsory service was reduced to 14 months.

    Annually, approximately 10, persons are trained in recruit centres. Depending on their awarded specialty the conscript recruits are then transferred to specialty training camps or to operational units.

    In the early 21st century the Cypriot economy has diversified and become prosperous. Tourism, financial services and shipping are significant parts of the economy.

    Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union.

    The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January Turkey , which does not recognise the border agreements of Cyprus with its neighbours, [] threatened to mobilise its naval forces if Cyprus proceeded with plans to begin drilling at Block Because of the heavy influx of tourists and foreign investors, the property rental market in Cyprus has grown in recent years.

    Available modes of transport are by road, sea and air. A series of motorways runs along the coast from Paphos east to Ayia Napa, with two motorways running inland to Nicosia, one from Limassol and one from Larnaca.

    Per capita private car ownership is the 29th-highest in the world. In the new bus network was implemented. Cyprus has several heliports and two international airports: A third airport, Ercan International Airport , operates in the Turkish Cypriot administered area with direct flights only to Turkey Turkish Cypriot ports are closed to international traffic apart from Turkey.

    Nicosia International Airport has been closed since The main harbours of the island are Limassol and Larnaca , which service cargo, passenger and cruise ships.

    Cyta , the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island.

    In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three different companies are present: According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of ,; of whom , Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between and , an island-wide census was regarded as impossible.

    Nevertheless, the Cypriot government conducted one in , without the Turkish Cypriot populace. In addition to this, the Republic of Cyprus is home to , foreign permanent residents [] and an estimated 10,—30, undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island.

    According to the census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were , de jure people living in Northern Cyprus.

    Of the , citizens born in Cyprus, , say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16, say both parents born in Turkey; 10, have one parent born in Turkey and one parent born in Cyprus.

    In , the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Cyprus was 1. The villages of Rizokarpaso only one in the north , Potamia Nicosia district and Pyla Larnaca District are the only settlements remaining with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population.

    Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus: Hala Sultan Tekke , situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake , is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam [] [] and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims [] and Christians.

    According to the census carried out in the Government-controlled area, [] There is also a Jewish community on Cyprus.

    Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish. Russian, after English and Greek, is the third language used on many signs of shops and restaurants, particularly in Limassol and Paphos.

    Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions.

    Cypriot universities like universities in Greece ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes.

    While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take.

    The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots share a lot in common in their culture but also have differences.

    Several traditional food such as souvla and halloumi and beverages are similar, as well as expressions and ways of life. Hospitality and buying or offering food and drinks for guests or others are common among both.

    In both communities, music, dance and art are integral parts of social life and many artistic, verbal and nonverbal expressions, traditional dances such as tsifteteli , similarities in dance costumes and importance placed on social activities are shared between the communities.

    The event which is very popular in Cyprus was introduced in the 20th century. The art history of Cyprus can be said to stretch back up to 10, years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa.

    Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination — In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides — who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice.

    In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England [] while others train at art schools in Greece and local art institutions such as the Cyprus College of Art , University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology.

    One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art "institutions" and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre.

    Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene.

    Cyprus was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia.

    The traditional folk music of Cyprus has several common elements with Greek , Turkish , and Arabic Music including Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot dances such as the sousta , syrtos , zeibekikos , tatsia , and karsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired tsifteteli and arapies.

    There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the violin "fkiolin" , lute "laouto" , accordion , Cyprus flute pithkiavlin , oud "outi" and percussions including the " toumperleki ".

    Among musicians is also the acclaimed pianist Cyprien Katsaris and composer and artistic director of the European Capital of Culture initiative Marios Joannou Elia.

    Metal also has a small following in Cyprus represented by bands such as Armageddon rev. Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria , an epic poem , probably composed in the late 7th century BC and attributed to Stasinus.

    The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry. Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages.

    Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Voustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages until the end of Frankish rule 4th century— Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch , Bembo , Ariosto and G.

    There is an increasingly strong presence of both temporary and permanent emigre Cypriot writers in world literature, as well as writings by second and third -generation Cypriot writers born or raised abroad, often writing in English.

    Examples of Cyprus in foreign literature include the works of Shakespeare, with most of the play Othello by William Shakespeare set on the island of Cyprus.

    British writer Lawrence Durrell lived in Cyprus from until , during his time working for the British colonial government on the island, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons about his time in Cyprus which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in The law provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

    An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press.

    The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.

    Local television companies in Cyprus include the state owned Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation which runs two television channels. The majority of local arts and cultural programming is produced by the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation and BRT, with local arts documentaries, review programmes and filmed drama series.

    The most worldwide known Cypriot director, to have worked abroad, is Michael Cacoyannis. In , Cypriot film production received a boost with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee.

    To date, four feature films on which a Cypriot was an executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. It was also the opening film in the Panorama of European Cinema in Athens.

    In , the film was nominated for the best film from the Hellenic Film Academy. Only a small number of foreign films have been made in Cyprus.

    During the medieval period, under the French Lusignan monarchs of Cyprus an elaborate form of courtly cuisine developed, fusing French, Byzantine and Middle Eastern forms.

    The Lusignan kings were known for importing Syrian cooks to Cyprus, and it has been suggested that one of the key routes for the importation of Middle Eastern recipes into France and other Western European countries, such as blancmange, was via the Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus.

    One that became particularly popular across Europe in the medieval and early modern periods was a stew made with chicken or fish called malmonia, which in English became mawmeny.

    Another example of a Cypriot food ingredient entering the Western European canon is the cauliflower, still popular and used in a variety of ways on the island today, which was associated with Cyprus from the early middle ages.

    There was also a long and extensive trade in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, until well into the sixteenth century. Although much of the Lusignan food culture was lost after the fall of Cyprus to the Ottomans in , a number of dishes that would have been familiar to the Lusignans survive today, including various forms of tahini and houmous, zalatina, skordalia and pickled wild song birds called ambelopoulia.

    Ambelopoulia, which is today highly controversial, and illegal, was exported in vast quantities from Cyprus during the Lusignan and Venetian periods, particularly to Italy and France.

    In the English traveller to Cyprus, John Locke, claimed to have seen the pickled wild birds packed into large jars, or which jars were exported from Cyprus annually.

    Also familiar to the Lusignans would have been Halloumi cheese, which some food writers today claim originated in Cyprus during the Byzantine period [] [] [] although the name of the cheese itself is thought by academics to be of Arabic origin.

    Seafood and fish dishes include squid, octopus, red mullet , and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and taro.

    Other traditional delicacies are meat marinated in dried coriander seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza smoked pork loin , charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki pork and chicken cooked over charcoal , and sheftalia minced meat wrapped in mesentery.

    Pourgouri bulgur , cracked wheat is the traditional source of carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the delicacy koubes.

    Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra , green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils.

    The most common fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines , nectarines, medlar , blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, and hazelnut.

    Cyprus is also well known for its desserts, including lokum also known as Turkish Delight and Soutzoukos. The Cyprus national rugby union team known as The Moufflons currently holds the record for most consecutive international wins, which is especially notable as the Cyprus Rugby Federation was only formed in Tennis player Marcos Baghdatis was ranked 8th in the world, was a finalist at the Australian Open, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final, all in High jumper Kyriakos Ioannou achieved a jump of 2.

    He has been ranked third in the world. They were the only athletes who managed to qualify and thus represented Cyprus at the Winter Olympics.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Cypress. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cyprus disambiguation.

    Island country in Mediterranean. Location of Cyprus pictured lower right , showing the Republic of Cyprus in darker green and the self-declared republic of Northern Cyprus in brighter green, with the rest of the European Union shown in faded green.

    Cypriot Greek Cypriot Turkish. History of Cyprus and Timeline of Cypriot history. Prehistoric Cyprus and Ancient history of Cyprus. Cyprus in the Middle Ages and Kingdom of Cyprus.

    British Cyprus and Modern history of Cyprus. Politics of Cyprus and House of Representatives Cyprus. Districts of Cyprus and List of cities, towns and villages in Cyprus.

    Foreign relations of Cyprus. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

    Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cyprus Police and Human rights in Cyprus.

    Transport in Cyprus and Roads and motorways in Cyprus. The port of Limassol , the busiest in Cyprus. However the post has been vacant since the Turkish invasion in Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 29 January The Revision, DB World Economic Outlook Database, October Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 20 September Human Development Index Trends, ".

    United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 31 July The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Historical Dictionary of Cyprus. Beyond a Divided Cyprus: A State and Society in Transformation.

    Legal aspects of the Cyprus problem: Annan Plan and EU accession. Retrieved 25 October Vajpeyi; Amir Bar-Or The International Law of Occupation.

    Waging War, Making Peace: Retrieved 27 March The Statehood of Palestine. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.

    In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus. The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence UDI as a.

    Small States in Europe: Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus , but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave.

    An Island in Europe: The EU and the Transformation of Cyprus. The Management of Tourism. Tourism Development and the Environment: Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 19 January Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p.

    George Routledge and Sons, , pp. Harvard University Press , p. The Earliest Prehistory of Cyprus: American Schools of Oriental Research.

    Archived from the original PDF on 6 June Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 23 November Faunal extinction in an island society: The Trojan War , pages — Greenwood Publishing Group, Greek Pottery in the Bronze Age.

    Retrieved 1 November Greenwood Publishing Group Orage Press, p. University of California Press. The Domed Basilicas of Cyprus. A History of the Middle Ages.

    University of Georgia Press, pp. Taylor and Francis, p. GPO for the Library of Congress, ". Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 22 September Historical dictionary of Cyprus [Online-Ausg.

    A History of the Global Economy. On the last Sunday in October at Sunrise and Sunset Times Sunrise and sunset times are given for the 15th of each month with the hours and minutes at 5 minutes approximation.

    Working Hours Government offices, private businesses and shops do not keep the same hours. Below is a general guide to office, shopping and banking hours.

    Public Service Hours Public service operating hours are flexible all year round. Operating days are from Monday to Friday, starting between Private Sector Hours Each company keeps its own hours, but generally, office hours are Shop Opening Hours Shop opening hours vary depending on their type and location and whether they are located in urban, tourist or rural areas.

    Generally, shops will open between On Sunday, opening times are later, typically around

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